What is Fiber Optics? | Fiber Optics Cable Types & How its Works

What is Fiber Optics

What is Fiber Optics?

Fiber optics, or optical fiber, refers to the medium and technology involving the transmission of information in the form of light pulses along with a glass or plastic strand or fiber. 

 Fiber optics is used for long-distance and high-performance data networking. In which the speedy and better type of internet speed is seen. Fiber optics is also commonly used in telecommunications services such as the Internet, television, and telephone. 

 For example, Verizon and Google use fiber optics in their Verizon FIOS and Google Fiber services respectively, which provide users with gigabit Internet speeds. 

There are many places in India where fiber optics is used for internet service.

 we can get to see different types of these glass fiber wires in a fiber optic cable i. we will get to see 100 in some and 200 in some. Around the glass fiber core is another layer of glass called cladding. A layer known as a buffer tube is used to protect the cladding, and a jacket layer serves as the final protective layer for the individual stand. Because of such a strong protection layer, the optical fiber cable can last for years in the air or water.  

Today optical fiber wires have been laid through the sea to reach internet facilities from one country to another all over the world.

How Fiber Optics Works

Fiber optics transmits data in the form of light particles or photons, that is, travels from one place to another. In which data is transmitted in the form of light pulse through fiber optics. The glass fiber core and each cladding have a different refractive index that bends incoming light at a certain angle.

When light signals are sent through a fiber optic cable, they reflect off the core and cladding in a series of zigzag bounces, and they follow a process called total internal refraction. Light signals cannot travel at the speed of light because layers of denser glass travel at about 30% slower than the speed of light.

To renew, or boost, the signal during its journey, fiber optics transmission sometimes requires repeaters at distant intervals, which convert the optical signal into an electrical signal, a process that electrical signal and re-transmits the signal. Due to which the light being transmitted is not wasted and keeps moving straight ahead.

 today’s time, almost in optical fiber technology, we can transmit single up to 10 Gbps. As the bandwidth of the optical fiber cable increases, at the same time, it becomes more expensive.  

Fiber Optics Cable Types

 The types of optical fiber we find depend on its refractive index, the material used, and the propagation of light. Types of Optical Fiber-Based on Refractive Index.

Types of Optical Fiber-Based on Refractive Index Step.

  • Index Fiber – This type of optical fiber consists of a core surrounded by cladding, with a uniform index of refraction.
  •  Graded Index Fiber– the refractive index of the optical fiber decreases as the radial distance from the fiber axis increases In this type of optical fiber.

Types of Optical Fiber-Based on the Materials Used 

  • Plastic Optic Fiber – Like the name of this optical fiber, it is made in which polymethylmethacrylate is used in optical fiber as the main material for the transmission of light. 
  • Glass Fiber – The stars of this type of optical fiber are completely made of glass.

Types of the optical fiber depend on the mode of propagation of light. 

  • Single Mode Fiber – These optical fibers are used for the long-distance transmission of signals. This type of optical fiber is used extensively.  
  • Multimode Fiber – This type of optical fiber is used for the short-distance transmission of signals.

Optical fiber cable

An optical fiber cable or fiber optics cable is a cable made of glass or plastic, or fiber, over which data is transmitted using light pulses. Optical fiber is used to transmit data over long distances in a very short time; fiber optics are used for the internet and telephone. The speed of optical fiber cable is many times higher than normal co excel cable or twisted paired cable and it works to reach gigabit internet speed to the user. Optical means light and fiber means thread which means thread that carries light.

Optical fiber cable consists of many such fibers or threads from which fiber optic cables are made which are as thin as human hair.

Use of Optical Fiber cable

  • Fiber optic cables transmit large amounts of data at very high speeds.  
  • Networking between computers in the same building or adjacent space is made easier and faster with the use of fiber optic cables. 
  • Fiber optic cables are widely used in the fields of medicine and research. 
  • Optical fiber cables currently play an important role in the lighting and security features of automobiles. 
  • Optical fiber is used to provide the first Internet connection, broadcast television, and computer networks. Along with this, they are also used in the military, fiber optics are also used in medical instruments like MRI scans, X-rays, microscopic surgery, light therapy, etc. 
  • Today we get to see many such vehicles in which very strict security is provided by using optical fiber.


Today we learned that optical fiber the optical fiber cable is as thin as human hair and is made of silica (glass) and plastic, on which high-speed data is provided using light. It is made up of core, cladding, and coating which is also called an outer jacket. Light travels in the core. Cladding is used to prevent light from going out and coating protects fiber optic cable from damage. These networks are used to carry data over long distances and provide good bandwidth.  

Fast internet service has been possible only through these optical fiber cables.

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